How do the orientation and inclination angle of the roof affect the yield?

The degree to which these factors are significant depends on the latitude of the installation location. The orientation and inclination angle of a system is if critical importance to your yield. 

In order to be able to forecast the yield from a specific system, it is recommended to use suitable simulation software such as PVsol or PVSyst.

What must be considered when mounting the modules?

For detailed information about the installation of Solar Frontier PowerModules, please refer to our installation manuals, under keyword "Installation". The installation manuals as well as other documents about Solar Frontier products are all available in the Download area of our homepage. 

Is a certain mounting system recommended?

The Solar Frontier PowerModules are compatible with all standard, commercially available mounting systems. We do not recommend one system in preference to the others. However, in the case of elevated module arrays in partial shadow, better results are achieved if the modules are arranged vertically (portrait arrangement). 

Which generator pole should be grounded on SF modules?

Unlike cadmium telluride or thin film silicon modules, neither the negative nor the positive pole on our CIS modules needs to be grounded. The TCO layer on our CIS modules is protected by the EVA foil by virtue of its substrate configuration. The TCO layer is not attacked by the Na+ ions in the glass, so it does not become degraded.

What requirements should be considered in areas of heavy snowfall and high winds?

Steps must be taken to ensure that the maximum permissible snow and wind loads for the SF modules are not exceeded. According to IEC specification 61646, snow loads on the front and wind loads on the back are guaranteed up to 2,400 Pa on the S series module; although the load limit for the module is above 3,000 Pa. More detailed information on this subject can be found in the product datasheets in the Download area of our homepage. For locations where a higher snow load is expected, you are advised to contact the Technical Support service of Solar Frontier Europe GmbH for information about the deployment of W series modules. These are certified to sustain static loads up to 5,400 Pa.

 

 

Is it possible to install the modules in corrosive atmospheres (e.g., atmospheres with heavy ammonia load from chicken farming)?

Yes. The Solar Frontier PowerModules have passed the certification tests for ammonia resistance. [Certificate issued by TÜV Rheinland on 28 June 2013: 2PfG 1917/05.11 "Ammonia corrosion testing of photovoltaic (PV) Modules"]

This certificate can be viewed on our homepage under menu item Products Certificates.

What requirements should be considered for atmospheres with a salt water content?

The Solar Frontier PowerModules can be installed in atmospheres with a salt water content. They have passed the TÜV certification tests for resistance to salt mist [Certificate issued by TÜV Rheinland on 28 June 2013: IEC61701:2012 "Salt mist corrosion testing of photovoltaic (PV) modules"]. 

This certificate can be viewed on our homepage under menu item Products Certificates.

What requirements must be considered with regard to humid environments?

The Solar Frontier PowerModules can be installed in environments with a relative humidity between 45% and 95%.

What requirements must be borne in mind for locations where Solar Frontier PowerModules are exposed to very dirty conditions?

In general, the self cleaning function of the modules is less effective at low inclination angles. At sites where there is a high likelihood that the modules will become dirty, it may therefore be necessary to clean the modules regularly by hand - particularly in installations with low inclination angles - to guarantee good yields in the long term. For more information about cleaning guidelines, please refer to our installation manual. The manual is available in the Download area.

Why are bypass diodes used in Solar Frontier modules when they are not used in CdTe modules?

Bypass diodes prevent an entire string from stopping production in the event that a single module is defective or completely overshadowed.

Which (transformerless) inverters are approved for use with Solar Frontier modules?

In general, all transformerless inverters are approved for use with Solar Frontier PowerModules. Therefore, approval of a specific product by Solar Frontier is not necessary.  

You can find a list of inverters that are compatible with Solar Frontier PowerModules in the Download area.

How can the most advantage be made of the Light Soaking Effect when specifying the inverter?

The tolerance ranges of the open circuit voltage ("Voc") and the short-circuit current ("Isc") are not affected by the Light Soaking Effect. Consequently, the information in the datasheet is quite sufficient for specifying the maximum system voltage and the maximum current. 

Is it possible to connect strings in parallel without a fuse or reflux diodes?

As long as the solar system is properly installed by a professional according to manufacturers’ instructions it is possible to connect the strings of the PowerSet without any fuse or reflux diode. 
Please note that certain local regulations might explicitly require the use of fuse to protect cables or modules. Please respect these regulations in any case.

What is the specific weight of the Solar Frontier modules including the substructure?

Our PowerModule has a weight of 20 kg spread over an area of 1.23 m². This is equivalent to 16.26 kg/m². For substructures, the following weights should typically be added for roofing:

  • Trapezoidal sheet metal roofs: approx. 7 kg/m²
  • Tiled or pantile roof: approx. 10 kg/m²
  • Flat roof with elevated mounting (no ballasting): approx. 15 kg/m²

How is the color of the frames for Solar Frontier PowerModules defined?

The black frame of the Solar Frontier PowerModules blends perfectly with the consistent black appearance. The frames are coated in our Production department before they are shipped. Before shipping, they undergo testing under extreme conditions and tests of long-term tests performance. The anodizing technique used means that the frame color cannot be determined according to RAL, for example.

Are there any Solar Frontier reference systems?

You will find many examples of completed Solar Frontier systems in the References area on our homepage. The subsection entitled Case Studies lists a large selection of documented systems. You can also find real yield data in various locations, particularly the menu item Output data PowerSets.

How can I view the yields from my system?

Register on the "Safer‘Sun Public" internet portal and you can view the yields from your system for 2 years free of charge.

For full information about how to register on the portal, please refer to section 9.7. of the installation manual for our PowerSets. The installation manual is available in the Download area on our homepage.

Do I need a special crimping tool for splicing cables during the installation?

Solar Frontier recommends the use of a suitable crimping tool. For detailed instructions, please refer to our installation manual. The installation manuals as well as other documents about Solar Frontier products are all available in the Download area of our homepage. 

I would like to install a PowerSet, but I have two different roof inclinations. Is it still possible?

Since the Solar Frontier inverters only have one MPP tracker, we recommend that all modules connected to an inverter should have the same orientation and inclination. In PowerSets that include two inverters or a combination of two PowerSets, it is possible to equip the east and west side, for example, with one PowerSet each. 

What is the diameter of the connecting cables?

The connecting cables have a diameter of 4mm2.

What must be considered when carrying out a network installation of multiple Solar Frontier inverters?

Each Solar Frontier inverter must be connected to the router or switch via a separate network cable. The installation manuals as well as other documents about Solar Frontier products are all available in the Download area of our homepage.