Is the operation of SF modules with transformerless inverters approved and do the poles have to be earthed?

In contrast to cadmium telluride or thin-layer silicon modules our CIS modules do not require an earthing of its negative or positive poles. The TCO layer of our CIS modules is being protected by the EVA foil due to its substrate configuration. The TCO layer is not being attacked by Na+ ions of the glass and therefore does not degrade. For this reason a transformerless inverter can be used without any restrictions.

 

 

Can the modules be used in corrosive atmospheres (e. g. atmosphere with high levels of ammonia caused by keeping poultry, with high levels of salt or humidity)?

Yes, The Solar Frontier modules have passed the following certification tests, amongst others:

- Certification test of ammonia resistance [certificate from TÜV Rheinland on June 28th, 2013: 2PfG 1917/05.11
"Ammonia corrosion testing of photovoltaic (PV) Modules”]

- TÜV certification test of salt mist resistance [certificate from TÜV Rheinland on June 28th: IEC61701:2012 "Salt mist corrosion testing of photovoltaic (PV) modules“].

In addition, Solar Frontier PowerModules can be installed in environments with a relative humidity of between 45% and 95%.

The corresponding certificates can be found on our website under the Certificates menu point.

Can the modules be damaged by hail?

In the process of the product certification according to IEC 61646, the modules were hit with ice balls at a speed of 80 km/h and withstood this test undamaged. So in conclusion, the modules are not endangered when exposed to hail. You can find the corresponding certificate on our homepage under the Certificates menu point.

Do the modules have to be cleaned on a regular basis?

In general, the self-cleaning function of the modules decreases with a lower inclination angle. At locations which feature a high potential for pollution it can therefore be necessary to clean the modules on a regular basis in order to ensure permanently high yields. This applies particularly for installations with a low inclination angle. For more information about cleaning guidelines, please refer to our installation manual, which is available in the download area.

How can the most advantage be made of the Light Soaking Effect when specifying the inverter?

The tolerance ranges of the open circuit voltage ("Voc") and the short-circuit current ("Isc") are not affected by the Light Soaking Effect. Consequently, the information in the datasheet is quite sufficient for specifying the maximum system voltage and the maximum current. 

Is it possible to connect strings in parallel without a fuse or reflux diodes?

As long as the solar system is properly installed by a professional according to the manufacturer's instructions it is possible to connect the strings of the PowerSet without any fuse or reflux diode. 

Please note that certain local regulations might explicitly require the use of a fuse to protect cables or modules. Please respect these regulations in all cases.

Can I uncouple or replace individual parts of the PowerSets?

The individual components of our Solar Frontier PowerSets have been adjusted to work optimally with each other. Therefore, they should not be changed. If components are replaced, we can no longer offer any guarantee for the PowerSet purchased.

How do Solar Frontier PowerModules react in the event of a fire?

The Solar Frontier PowerModules were developed with full consideration for health and environmental protection. The organization for New Energies and Industrial Development (NEDO) in Japan, the Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW) in Germany and the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the USA have reported that in the event of a fire only very small quantities of toxic gases are released into the atmosphere. Therefore, Solar Frontier modules do not represent an increased health risk in the event of fire.

Our modules have also been classified in Class E according to EN-ISO 11925-2 by a renowned test institution.